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late 1950s > beat music

beat music (british beat or Merseybeat):

stylistic origins: british rock and roll / pop / doo-wop / rhythm and blues / skiffle
cultural origins: late 1950s to early 1960s in the United Kingdom

Beat music, British beat, or Merseybeat (after bands from Liverpool and nearby areas beside the River Mersey) is a pop and rock music genre that developed in the United Kingdom. Beat music is a fusion of rock and roll (mainly Chuck Berry guitar style and the midtempo beat of artists like Buddy Holly), doo-wop, skiffle and R&B. The genre provided many of the bands responsible for the British Invasion of the American pop charts starting in 1964, and provided the model for many important developments in pop and rock music, including the format of the rock group around lead, rhythm and bass guitars with drums.

merseybeat bands:

The Beatles – We Can Work it Out; Billy J. Kramer and The Dakotas – Bad To Me; The Searchers – Needles and Pins:


british beat bands:

The Herman’s Hermits – I’m Into Something Good; Freddie and the Dreamers- I’m Telling You Now; Manfred Mann – Mighty Quinn:


The equivalent scenes in Birmingham and London were described as Brum beat and the Tottenham Sound respectively.

beat music subgenres: freakbeat

derivative forms: garage rock, power pop, pop punk, Britpop, yé-yé, psychedelic rock, group sounds, wong shadow, string (thai pop)


late 1950s > garage rock

garage rock:

stylistic origins: rock and roll / rockabilly / beat / rhythm and blues / soul / blues / surf rock / instrumental rock / pop
cultural origins: late 1950s, United States and Canada

Garage rock (sometimes called ’60s punk or garage punk) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada. The term “garage rock” derives from the perception that groups were often made up of young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage, although many were professional.

During the 1960s the music was not recognized as a distinct genre and had no specific name, but critical hindsight in the early 1970s—and particularly the release of the 1972 compilation album Nuggets—did much to define and memorialize the style. Certain rock critics from 1971 to 1973 began to retroactively identify garage music as a genre and for a time used the term “punk rock”, making it the first form of music to bear this description. Since then, the genre has sometimes been referred to as “garage punk”, as well as later labels such as “’60s punk” or “proto-punk”, which distinguish it from the more commonly known punk movement of the mid- to late-1970s that it influenced. The term “garage rock” came into favor in the early 1980s.

original mid-1960s garage bands (primarily active from 1964-68):

The Sonics – Have Love, Will Travel; 13th Floor Elevators – You’re Gonna Miss Me; The Kingsmen – Louie Louie:


later period protopunk and garage-influenced bands (1967 to 1979):

The Stooges – I Wanna Be Your Dog; Rocket From The Tombs – So Cold; MC5 – I Can Only Give You Everything:


Garage rock revival was a movement in the 1980s that recaptured the raucous spirit of 1960s garage rock. Key bands in this genre include DMZ, The Fuzztones and Lyres. The scene was never particularly commercially successful, but it gained a strong underground following.

1980 – present garage rock revival bands:

White Stripes – Fell in Love With a Girl; The Strokes – Reptilia; The Hives – Hate to Say I Told You So:


subgenres: frat rock

derivative forms: acid rock, proto-punk, hard rock, power pop, punk rock, psychobilly, punk blues, postpunk revival, paisley underground

fusion genres: garage punk


late 1950s > anatolian rock

anatolian rock (turkish rock):

stylistic origins: psychedelic rock / progressive rock / turkish folk music / psychedelic folk / folk rock
cultural origins: late 1950s – early 1980s, Turkey

Anatolian rock also known as Turkish rock, is a fusion of Turkish folk and rock music. It emerged during the mid-1960s. The first wave of Anadolu rock was highly influenced by Psychedelic Rock (Bunalım, Erkin Koray, Cem Karaca) as well as Progressive Rock (Barış Manço) and Funk (Mustafa Özkent). The second wave of Anatolian rock emerged as a Hard Rock expansion of traditional Turkish melodies. The most important artists of this era include Haluk Levent, Kıraç and Kurban.

anatolian rock bands:

Bunalim – Yeter Artik Kadin; Mustafa Özkent – Dolana; Kurban – Lambaya Püf De:



1950s > pop rock

pop rock (or pop/rock):

stylistic origins: pop / rock / doo-wop
cultural origins: 1950s

Pop rock is rock music with a lighter, smoother approach that is more reminiscent of commercial pop music. Originating in the 1950s as an alternative to rock and roll, early pop rock was influenced by the beat, arrangements, and style of rock and roll (and sometimes doo-wop), but placed a greater emphasis on professional songwriting and recording craft. It may be viewed as one genre field, rather than two distinct categories.

The terms “pop rock” and “power pop” have been used to describe more commercially successful music that uses elements from, or the form of, rock music. Writer Johan Fornas views pop/rock as “one single, continuous genre field”, rather than distinct categories. To the authors Larry Starr and Christopher Waterman, it is defined as an “upbeat variety of rock music”

pop rock bands:

OneRepublic – Counting Stars; Maroon 5 – This Love; Hanson – If Only:


pop rock subgenres: jangle pop, power pop

derivative forms: Brill Building, indie pop, soft rock


pop rock > early 1960s > brill building

brill building (brill building pop or the brill building sound):
stylistic origins: pop / tin pan alley / rock and roll / doo-wop / rhythm and blues / pop rock / latin music
cultural origins: early 1960s, New York City

brillbuilding-2009Brill Building is a subgenre of pop or pop rock music originating from the Brill Building in New York City, where numerous teams of professional songwriters penned material for girl groups and teen idols in the early 1960s.

The genre dominated the American charts in the period between Elvis Presley’s army enlistment in 1958 and the onset of the British Invasion in 1964. It declined thereafter, but demonstrated a continued influence on British and American pop and rock music in subsequent years, having introduced the concept of professional songwriters to traditional pop and early rock and roll and helping to inspire the girl group craze of the era. Other reasons for the style’s decline was the tendency among writers and producers to duplicate earlier successes, resulting in many records that sounded the same, as well the changing nature of society and consumer markets.

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