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early 1960s > surf rock
stylistic origins: rock and roll / surf culture
cultural origins: early 1960s, United States
Surf music is a subgenre of rock music associated with surf culture, particularly as found in Southern California. It was especially popular from 1962 to 1964 in two major forms. The first is instrumental surf, distinguished by reverb-drenched electric guitars played to evoke the sound of crashing waves, largely pioneered by Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. The second is vocal surf, which took the original surf sound and added vocal harmonies backed by basic Chuck Berry rhythms, a movement led by the Beach Boys.
Dick Dale developed the surf sound from instrumental rock, where he added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, a spring reverb, and the rapid alternate picking characteristics. His regional hit “Let’s Go Trippin'” (1961) launched the surf music craze, inspiring many others to take up the approach.
The genre reached national exposure when it was represented by vocal groups such as the Beach Boys, Jan and Dean, and Bruce & Terry.
surf rock bands:
Dick Dale and His DelTones – Let’s Go Trippin’; Bruce and Terry – Don’t run away; The Beach Boys – Surfin’ USA:
subgenres: instrumental surf, vocal surf, hot rod rock
fusion genres: surf punk
early 1960s > blues rock
stylistic origins: electric blues / rock and roll / british blues / blues / rock
cultural origins: early to mid 1960s, United Kingdom and United States
Blues rock is a fusion genre combining elements of blues and rock.
The blues rock genre was defined when John Mayall released the album Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton in 1966.
In the UK, the style was popularized by groups such as the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, and the Animals.In the US, Lonnie Mack, the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, and Canned Heat were among the earliest exponents and “attempted to play long, involved improvisations which were commonplace on jazz records”. In the US, Johnny Winter, the Allman Brothers Band, and ZZ Top represented a hard rock trend.
The Jimi Hendrix Experience and Band of Gypsys, has had broad and lasting influence on the development of blues rock, especially for guitarists. Eric Clapton was another guitarist with a lasting influence on the genre; his work in the 1960s and 1970s with John Mayall and the Bluesbreakers, The Yardbirds, supergroups Blind Faith, Cream and Derek and the Dominos, and an extensive solo career has been seminal in bringing blues rock into the mainstream. American acts such as The Doors and Janis Joplin further introduced mainstream audiences to the genre. David Gilmour of Pink Floyd is known for incorporating a mixture of blues rock, progressive rock and psychedelic rock into his guitar work. Gilmour, who has received universal acclaim (from both critics and fans alike) for his guitar work, has described Hendrix as a huge inspiration for his style of playing.
Jimi Hendrix – Voodoo Child; Eric Clapton & John Mayall with The Blues Breakers – Hideaway; Cream – Sunshine of Your Love:
fusion genres: punk blues
early 1960s > folk rock
stylistic origins: folk / rock / pop
cultural origins: early to mid 1960s, United Kingdom and United States
Folk rock is a music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music. In its earliest and narrowest sense, the term referred to a genre that arose in the United States and the United Kingdom around the mid-1960s. The genre was pioneered by the Los Angeles band the Byrds, who began playing traditional folk music and songs by Bob Dylan with rock instrumentation. The term “folk rock” was coined by the U.S. music press to describe the Byrds’ music in June 1965, the month in which the band’s debut album was issued.
The release of the Byrds’ 1965 cover version of Dylan’s “Mr. Tambourine Man” and its subsequent commercial success, along with Dylan’s own recordings with rock instrumentation—on the albums Bringing It All Back Home (1965), Highway 61 Revisited (1965), and Blonde on Blonde (1966)—initiated an explosion of folk rock groups the mid-1960s. Dylan’s appearance at the Newport Folk Festival on 25 July 1965, with an electric band backing him, was also a pivotal moment in the development of the genre.
folk rock songs:
The Byrds – Mr. Tambourine man; Bob Dylan – Like a Rolling Stone; Simon And Garfunkel – The Sound Of Silence:
folk rock subgenres: celtic rock, manila sound, electric folk, folk metal, folk punk, folktronica, indian rock, indie folk, neofolk, medieval folk rock, psychedelic folk, raga rock, viking metal
derivative forms: acid rock, heartland rock, neofolk, sunshine pop, post-progressive
folk rock > mid 1960s > indian rock
stylistic origins: South Asian, Indian music
cultural origins: mid-1960s, India, Bengal
Indian rock is a music genre in India that incorporates elements of Indian music with mainstream rock music and is often topically India-centric. While India is more often known for its (northern and southern) classical music and Bollywood film music, the Indian rock scene has also produced numerous bands and artists.
Like Western rock musicians at the time, Indian musicians also began fusing rock with traditional Indian music from the mid-1960s onwards. Many of these songs were often filmi songs produced for popular Bollywood films, which often overshadowed the country’s independent rock scene. Some of the more well known early rock songs (including styles such as funk rock, pop rock, psychedelic rock, raga rock, and soft rock) from Bollywood films include Mohammed Rafi’s “Jaan Pehechan Ho” in Gumnaam (1965), Kishore Kumar’s “O Saathi Re” in Muqaddar Ka Sikandar (1978), and Asha Bhosle songs such as “Dum Maro Dum” in Hare Rama Hare Krishna (1971), “Ae Naujawan Hai Sab” in Apradh (1972), and “Yeh Mera Dil Pyar Ka Diwana” in Don (1978).
Mohammed Rafi – Jaan Pehchan Ho; Kishore Kumar – O Saathi Re; Asha Bhosle – Ae Naujawan Hai Sab Kuchh Yahaan:
While the orientalist trend of the 60s and 70s was by the 80s and 90s largely over, India itself continued to produce bands in various styles of rock music, from soft rock and roll and pop-rock, to hard rock and metal. In the early 1980s, however, rock was largely overshadowed by disco, which dominated Indian pop music up until the mid-1980s.
With the arrival of MTV, tastes rapidly changed, encouraging bands to harden their style and focus more on underground styles such as death metal, alternative metal, and progressive rock. The 1990s saw the rise of a much larger following of various harder styles for this reason.
Rock Machine – Top of the Rock; Avial – Ayyo; Indian Ocean – Maa Rewa:
indian rock subgenres: raga rock, indian fusion, indian funk, rock and roll, vedic metal, metal
indian rock > mid 1960s > raga rock
stylistic origins: rock / pop / rāga / other Indian forms of music
cultural origins: mid 1960s, United Kingdom and United States
An Indian subgenre of rock exists that focuses on blending traditional Indian styles of music with rock music. The term for non-Indian bands using Indian instrumentals and vocal in rock is raga rock.
In the West, some groups, such as The Beatles, traveled to India and incorporated aspects of Indian music, especially classical instruments such as the sitar, into their music, often as a way of conjuring psychedelic ‘Eastern’ feelings. The term for this was raga rock, and examples of it are The Beatles “Love You To”, “The Inner Light”,”Across the Universe”,”Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)”, “Tomorrow Never Knows”, “Strawberry Fields Forever” and “Within You Without You”; The Rolling Stones’ “Paint it, Black”; The Kinks’ “Fancy”; The Doors’ “The End” and The Byrds’ “Eight Miles High”. A number of prolific Indian classical musicians such as Ravi Shankar aligned themselves with this trend, collaborating with Western artists. Indian bands themselves mainly covered early rock songs by pioneers of rock and roll in the United Kingdom and America, and only achieved recognition in popular culture by supporting film scores and Indian pop.
Ragas are specific melodic modes used in classical music of South Asia. Thus, any rock songs with obvious Indian influences may be deemed “raga-rock” although the term is frequently used to refer to much more explicitly Indian musical outings. A major influence on raga rock was the Indian classical raga music of Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar, who himself had become a pop music icon by 1966, following the rise of the raga rock trend.
The Beatles- Norwegian Wood(The Bird Has Flown); The Rolling Stones – Paint It, Black; The Kinks – Fancy:
1960s > jam rock
jam rock (jam bands):
stylistic origins: blues / rock and roll / electric blues / jazz / funk / folk / country / rhythm and blues / soul / bluegrass / psychedelic rock / progressive rock / art rock / jazz fusion / country rock / electronic
cultural origins: 1960s, California, United States of America
allmusic: “Jam Bands were frequently pegged as Grateful Dead or Allman Brothers copyists when they first emerged in the early ’90s. There was some truth to that, since jam bands were influenced by these groups, but jam bands were hardly mere revivalists. They were synthesists, borrowing elements of everything from classic rock and bluegrass to soul jazz and Sting & Paul Simon’s worldbeat explorations. The first jam bands — Blues Traveler, Widespread Panic, Spin Doctors, among others — were more rock-oriented, but as the decade rolled on and more bands were formed, the genre’s diversity deepened. Of all these bands, Phish towered above the rest, due to their musical eclecticism, uncanny technical abilities, and massive popularity. They weren’t really like the Dead, but they shared one distinct similarity — they sold more tickets than records.”[^3]
The Allman Brothers Band – Fillmore East – Full Concert – 09/23/70; Grateful Dead – Morning Dew – San Francisco 1976; Phish – Moma Dance – Live in Brooklyn, NY – 6/17/04: