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mid 1960s > group sounds (G.S.)

group sounds (G.S.):

stylistic origins: rock and roll / beat music / british rock / kayōkyoku
cultural origins: mid 1960s, Japan

Group sounds (G.S.) is a genre of Japanese rock music which became popular in the mid to late 1960s and initiated the fusion of Japanese kayōkyoku music and Western rock music. Their music production techniques were regarded as playing a pioneering role in modern Japanese popular music.

group sounds (G.S.):

Fōku (folk) and New Music became famous in Japan in the 1970s, but new rock bands survived as “New Rock” in Japanese underground music. The origin of modern Japanese rock music was usually regarded as New Rock. Videos of New Rock bands’ concerts were very rare.

new rock bands:

derivative forms: J-pop


pop rock > beat music > mid 1960s > freakbeat


stylistic origins: rock and roll, blues, beat, rhythm and blues, soul
cultural origins: mid-1960s, Great Britain

With the emergence of the Mod scene, Freakbeat evolved around 1964-5 as a distinctly fuzzy, frantic, effects-heavy beat style adopted by bands such as British freakbeat band The Creation that inspired Jimmy Page and Pete Townshend.

Some of the best-known examples of the freakbeat genre include the British hits “Take a Heart” by The Sorrows, “Making Time” by The Creation, and “I Can Hear the Grass Grow” by The Move. Much of the material collected on Rhino Records’s 2001 box-set compilation Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire and Beyond, 1964-1969 can be classified as freakbeat.

The Sorrows – Take A Heart; The Creation – Making Time; The Move – I Can Hear the Grass Grow:


late 1963 > british invasion

The British Invasion was a phenomenon that occurred in the mid-1960s when rock and pop music acts from the United Kingdom, as well as other aspects of British culture, became popular in the United States. Began in late 1963, and ended with the beginning of 1967, when psychedelic rock became mainstream.

Pop and rock groups such as the Beatles, the Dave Clark Five, the Kinks, the Rolling Stones, Herman’s Hermits, the Animals, and the Who were at the forefront of the invasion.

The Beatles – I Want To Hold Your Hand; Animals – House of the Rising Sun; Time is on my side – The Rolling Stones:


The Second British Invasion refers to music acts from the United Kingdom that became popular in the United States from the middle of 1982 into late 1986, primarily due to the cable music channel MTV. It was mainly synthpop and new wave-influenced acts that predominated.

On July 3, 1982, The Human League’s “Don’t You Want Me” started a three-week reign on top of the Hot 100. “I Ran (So Far Away)” by A Flock of Seagulls, the first successful song that owed almost everything to video, had entered the Billboard Top Ten. Duran Duran’s glossy videos would come to symbolize the power of MTV.

Human League – Don’t You Want Me; A Flock Of Seagulls – I Ran, So Far Away; Billy Idol White Wedding:


During the late 1980s, glam metal and dance music replaced Second Invasion acts atop the U.S. charts.


1960s > roots rock

roots rock:

stylistic origins: rock / country / blues / blues rock / folk / folk-rock / rock and roll / roots revival

cultural origins: 1960s, United States

Roots rock is rock music that looks back to rock’s origins in folk, blues and country music. It is particularly associated with the creation of hybrid subgenres from the later 1960s including country rock and Southern rock, which have been seen as responses to the perceived excesses of dominant psychedelic and developing progressive rock.

Because roots music (Americana) is often used to mean folk and world musical forms, roots rock is sometimes used in a broad sense to describe any rock music that incorporates elements of this music. In the 1980s, roots rock enjoyed a revival in response to trends in punk rock, new wave and heavy metal music.

essential roots rock songs:

creedence clearwater revival – green river; The Band – Stage Fright; Dire Straits – So Far Away:


roots rock subgenres: country rock, southern rock, heartland rock, swamp rock


roots rock > late 1960s > country rock

country rock:

stylistic origins: rock and roll / folk rock / country / rockabilly
cultural origins: late 1960s, Southern and Western United States

The term country-rock is generally used to refer to the wave of rock musicians of the late 1960s and early 1970s who began to record rock records using country themes, vocal styles and additional instrumentation, most characteristically pedal steel guitar.

John Einarson states: “From a variety of perspectives and motivations, these musicians either played rock & roll attitude, or added a country feel to rock, or folk, or bluegrass, there was no formula”.

Country rock began with Bob Dylan and The Byrds, reaching its greatest popularity in the 1970s with artists such as Emmylou Harris, the Eagles, Linda Ronstadt, Michael Nesmith, Poco and Pure Prairie League. Country rock also influenced artists in other genres, including The Band, Grateful Dead, Creedence Clearwater Revival, The Rolling Stones, and George Harrison’s solo work. It also played a part in the development of Southern rock.

The Byrds – “Mr. Tambourine Man” – 5/11/65; Buffalo Springfield – For What It’s Worth 1967; Eagles – Lyin’ Eyes:


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