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late 1960s > samba rock

samba rock:

stylistic origins: Brazilian rock / samba / psychedelic rock / rock and roll / bossa nova / bebop / jazz / soul
cultural origins: late 1960s, Brazil

Samba-rock is a genre of samba and subgenre of rock. Created in the 1960s, the genre combines the sounds of Brazilian samba, soul, bebop, and jazz. Jorge Ben Jor created the style with his album “Bidu/Silêncio no Brooklin”. After this, a great number of artists followed Ben’s beat, including Banda Black Rio and Trio Mocoto.1“Samba-Rock Music | Last.Fm”. Last.Fm, 2018, Accessed 17 July 2018.

Jorge Ben – Domingo 23; Banda Black Rio – Maria Fumaca; Trio Mocotó – Kibe Cru:


progressive rock > late 1960s > Canterbury scene

canterbury scene (or canterbury sound):

stylistic origins: progressive rock / psychedelia / avant-garde / jazz
cultural origins: late 1960s, Canterbury, United Kingdom

The Canterbury scene (or Canterbury Sound) is a subgenre of, or sibling to, progressive rock. The term describes a loosely defined style of music created by a number of improvisational musicians, some of whom were based in the city of Canterbury, Kent, England during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

These musicians played together in numerous bands, with ever-changing and overlapping personnel, creating some similarities in their musical output. Many prominent British avant-garde or fusion musicians began their career in Canterbury bands, including Hugh Hopper, Steve Hillage, Dave Stewart (the keyboardist), Robert Wyatt, Kevin Ayers, Daevid Allen, and Mike Ratledge. Over the years, with outside musicians joining Canterbury bands, and new bands all over the world adopting a ‘Canterbury sound’, the term has come to describe the musical style rather than a regional group of musicians.

Five bands were central to the Canterbury scene:
Soft Machine, Caravan, Gong, Hatfield and the North
National Health

Soft Machine-Why Are We Sleeping?; Caravan Love to Love You (And Tonight Pigs Will Fly); Hatfield And The North Shaving Is Boring:


late 1960s > christian rock

christian rock:

stylistic origins: rock music / jesus music / christian music
cultural origins: late 1960s, United States

Christian rock is a form of rock music that features lyrics focusing on matters of Christian faith, often with an emphasis on Jesus, typically performed by self-proclaimed Christian individuals. The extent to which their lyrics are explicitly Christian varies between bands. Many bands who perform Christian rock have ties to the contemporary Christian music labels, media outlets, and festivals, while other bands are independent.

There are multiple definitions of what qualifies as a “Christian rock” band. Christian rock bands that explicitly state their beliefs and use religious imagery in their lyrics, like Servant, Third Day, and Petra, tend to be considered a part of the contemporary Christian music (CCM) industry.

Other bands perform music influenced by their faith or containing Christian imagery, but see their audience as the general public. For example, Bono of U2 combines many elements of spirituality and faith into his lyrics, but the band is not directly labeled as a “Christian rock” band

Servant – The Dance – Swimming in a Human Ocean; Third Day – I Need A Miracle; Petra-It Is Finished!:

christian rock subgenres: christian alternative rock, christian metal, christian punk, christian hardcore



late 1960s > cock rock

cock rock:

cultural origins: late 1960s, United States


The style developed in the later 1960s came to prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and it continues into the 21st century.

Philip Auslander uses Simon Frith’s description of cock rock characteristics:

cock-rock performance means an explicit, crude, ‘masterful’ expression of sexuality … Cock-rock performers are aggressive, boastful, constantly drawing audience attention to their prowess and control. Their bodies are on display … mikes and guitars are phallic symbols (or else caressed like female bodies), the music is loud, rhythmically insistent, built around techniques of arousal and release. Lyrics are assertive and arrogant, but the exact words are less significant than the vocal styles involved, the shrill shouting and screaming.”

Led Zeppelin has been described as “the quintessential purveyors of ‘cock rock'”. Other formative acts include the Rolling Stones, The Who and Jim Morrison of The Doors.

Led Zeppelin – Heartbreaker; The Rolling Stones Satisfaction Live 1965; The Doors – Roadhouse Blues:

Since the 1980s, the term has been sometimes interchangeable with hair metal or glam metal. Examples of this genre include Mötley Crüe, Ratt, Warrant, Extreme, Cinderella, Pretty Boy Floyd, Jackyl, L.A. Guns, and Poison. Despite the name, many of these bands had or have large numbers of female fans. The spoof documentary This Is Spinal Tap is an acclaimed parody of the genre. In the 21st century, there was a revival of the genre with the sleaze metal movement in Sweden, with acts including Vains of Jenna.


early 1970s > ostrock


cultural origins: early 1970s, East Germany

By the early 1970s, experimental West German rock styles had crossed the border into East Germany and influenced the creation of an East German rock movement referred to as Ostrock. On the other side of the Wall, these bands tended to be stylistically more conservative than in the West, to have more reserved engineering, and often to include more classical and traditional structures. These groups often featured poetic lyrics loaded with indirect double-meanings and deeply philosophical challenges to the status quo. As such, they were a style of Krautrock. The best-known of these bands were The Puhdys, Karat, City, Stern-Combo Meißen and Silly.

There was also a wide diversity of underground bands. Out of this scene later grew the internationally successful band Rammstein.

City – Am Fenster; Puhdys – Alt wie ein Baum; Stern Combo Meissen – Der Kampf um den Sudpol:


pop rock > early 1970s > glam rock

glam rock (glitter rock):

stylistic origins: art rock / hard rock / psychedelic rock / garage rock / rock and roll / cabaret / bubblegum pop
cultural origins: early 1970s, United Kingdom

Glam rock is a style of rock that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s performed by musicians who wore outrageous costumes, makeup, and hairstyles, particularly platform shoes and glitter. Glam artists drew on diverse sources across music and throwaway pop culture, ranging from bubblegum pop and ’50s rock and roll to cabaret, science fiction, and complex art rock. The flamboyant clothing and visual styles of performers were often camp or androgynous, and have been described as playing with nontraditional gender roles. “Glitter rock” was another term used to refer to a more extreme version of glam.

The UK charts were inundated with glam rock acts from 1971 to 1975, with glam also manifesting in all areas of British popular culture during this period. The March 1971 appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan on the BBC’s music show Top of the Pops, wearing glitter and satins, is often cited as the beginning of the movement. Other British glam rock artists include David Bowie, Freddie Mercury of Queen, Mott the Hoople, Sweet, Slade, Mud, Roxy Music and Gary Glitter. In the US the scene was much less prevalent, with Alice Cooper and Lou Reed the only American artists to score a hit. Other US glam artists include New York Dolls, Iggy Pop, and Jobriath. It declined after the mid-1970s, but influenced other musical genres including punk rock, glam metal, New Romantic, and gothic rock and has sporadically revived since the 1990s.

T. Rex – Hot Love; David Bowie – Ziggy Stardust; Queen – Flick of the wrist:

fusion genres: glam metal, glam punk


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