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folk rock > electric folk > early 1970s > medieval folk rock
medieval folk rock (medieval rock or medieval folk):
stylistic origins: rock music, folk rock, electric folk, early music, progressive folk
cultural origins: early 1970s, England, Germany
Medieval folk rock, medieval rock or medieval folk is a musical subgenre that emerged in the early 1970s in England and Germany which combined elements of early music with rock music.
It grew out of the British folk-rock and progressive folk movements of the later 1960s. Despite the name, the term was used indiscriminately to categorize performers who incorporated elements of medieval, renaissance and baroque music into their work and sometimes to describe groups who used few, or no, electric instruments.
This subgenre reached its height towards the middle of the 1970s when it achieved some mainstream success in Britain, but within a few years most groups had either disbanded or were absorbed into the wider movements of progressive folk and progressive rock. Nevertheless, the genre had a considerable impact within progressive rock where early music, and medievalism in general, was a major influence and through that in the development of heavy metal.
More recently medieval folk rock has revived in popularity along with other forms of medieval inspired music such as Dark Wave orientated neo-Medieval music and medieval metal.
medieval folk rock subgenre: medieval metal
progressive rock > early 1970s > Italian progressive rock
Italian progressive rock:
Italy was one of the European countries most interested in this genre; many English bands such as Genesis, Van der Graaf Generator and Gentle Giant were discovered by the Italian public before they had consolidated a fan base in their home country. Consequently, progressive Italian groups were prolific. Some received worldwide attention, such as Goblin, Le Orme, Premiata Forneria Marconi (PFM), Area, and Banco del Mutuo Soccorso. The group of Celeste used mellotron for the string sections, flutes, classical guitar and percussion as rhythm instruments to replace the drums.
Goblin – Love & Hate; PFM – È Festa; OSANNA – Taka Boom:
early 1970s > funk rock
stylistic origins: funk / rock / psychedelia
cultural origins: early 1970s, United States
Funk rock is a fusion of funk and rock. Many instruments may be incorporated into the music, but the overall sound is defined by a definitive bass or drum beat and electric guitars. The bass and drum rhythms are influenced by funk music but with more sonic intensity, while the guitar can be funk- or rock-influenced, usually with distortion, which is similar to overdrive or fuzz.
Funk rock’s earliest incarnation on record was heard in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s by acts such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience (later work / Band of Gypsys), Eric Burdon and War, Redbone, Rick Derringer, David Bowie, Aerosmith, Wild Cherry, Average White Band, Gary Wright, Trapeze, The Bar-Kays, Black Merda, Parliament-Funkadelic, Betty Davis and Mother’s Finest.
During the 1980s and 1990s, funk rock music experienced a surge in popularity, with bands such as Tom Tom Club, Pigbag, INXS, Talking Heads, Devo, the Fine Young Cannibals and Cameo dabbling in the sound. Groups including Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against the Machine, Incubus, Mr. Bungle, Primus and Faith No More also notably combined funk rock with metal, punk, hip-hop and experimental music, leading to the emergence of the genre known as funk metal or “punk-funk”.
Red Hot Chili Peppers – Give It Away; Faith No More – We Care A Lot; Lenny Kravitz – Tunnel Vision:
funk rock subgenres: funk metal, dance-punk, manguebeat
early 1970s > punk rock
punk rock (or simply punk):
stylistic origins: rock and roll / rockabilly / hard rock / surf rock / garage rock / glam rock / pub rock / proto-punk / ska
cultural origins: early to mid-1970s, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia
Punk bands typically use short or fast-paced songs, with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produced recordings and distributed them through informal channels.
By the end of 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, and the Sex Pistols, The Clash, the Damned in London, were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement.
1970s > AOR
AOR (adult-oriented rock):
stylistic origins: rock / hard rock / progressive rock
cultural origins: 1970s and 1980s
AOR (Adult Oriented Rock) is a sub-genre of Rock that emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s as an amalgamation of Rock, Hard Rock and Progressive Rock.
It is characterized by a rich, layered sound, slick production and a heavy reliance on pop/rock hooks, which led to its huge popularity in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Adult-oriented rock is distinguished from the US “album-oriented rock” FM radio format, also called AOR, which played not only adult-oriented rock but also album tracks and “deep cuts” from a variety of other rock genres.
AOR songs are almost always synthesizer driven and catchy and very often include harmonized vocals. The catchy choruses combined with relatively short song lengths make AOR a very radio friendly genre. The songs are more melodic than straight-ahead, regular Hard Rock, but still not nearly as light as Pop Rock.
Some of the earliest – and also the most well known – AOR bands include names like Asia, Boston, Foreigner, Journey, Survivor, and Toto.
Survivor – Eye Of The Tiger; Journey – Any Way You Want It; Toto – Hold The Line:
pop rock > soft rock > 1970s > yacht rock
yacht rock (earlier known as the West Coast Sound):
stylistic origins: soft rock
cultural origins: 1970s–80s, United States
“Yacht rock” is a name for the popular soft rock that peaked between the years of 1976 and 1984. Significant “yacht rockers” include Michael McDonald, Kenny Loggins, Christopher Cross, and Toto. While the music has existed for years, popular usage of the term “yacht rock” is relatively new, coming into circulation through the online comedy series of the same name.
In the musical sense, yacht rock refers to the highly polished brand of soft rock that emanated from Southern California during the late 1970s and early 1980s. In part, the term relates to the stereotype of the yuppie yacht owner, enjoying champagne and smooth music while out for a sail. Additionally, since sailing was a popular leisure activity in Southern California, many “yacht rockers” made nautical references in their lyrics, videos, and album artwork, particularly the anthemic track Sailing by Christopher Cross.
The foundation of the yacht rock scene was a local pool of versatile session musicians who frequently played on each other’s records. This professionalism often gave yacht rock recordings a high level of sophistication in musical areas such as composition, arrangement, and instrumental skill.
The most popular yacht rock artists enjoyed massive commercial success. During its peak years, yacht rock dominated the Grammy Awards, with Christopher Cross and Toto sweeping the major awards in 1981 and 1983 respectively, feats consistently derided by Grammy prognosticators. However, yacht rock was not a hit with most rock critics at the time, who dismissed it as being corporate rock that was overproduced, generic, and middle of the road, favoring such acts as The Clash, Patti Smith, and Elvis Costello instead.1“Yacht Rock Wiki | Last.Fm”. Last.Fm, 2018, https://www.last.fm/tag/yacht+rock/wiki. Accessed 1 Aug 2018.
Sailing – Christopher Cross; Steely Dan – Hey Nineteen; Doobie Brothers – What A Fool Believes:
1970s > pub rock (United Kingdom)
pub rock (United Kingdom)
stylistic origins: rock and roll / garage rock / british blues / country rock / folk rock / power pop / rhythm and blues / beat
cultural origins: 1970s, London and Essex
Pub rock was deliberately nasty, dirty and post-glam. Dress style was based around denim and plaid shirts, tatty jeans and droopy hair. The figureheads of the movement, Dr. Feelgood, were noted for their frontman’s filthy white suit. Bands looked menacing and threatening, “like villains on The Sweeney”. According to David Hepworth, Dr Feelgood looked as if they had “come together in some unsavory section of the army”.
Pub rock groups disdained any form of flashy presentation. Scene leaders like Dr. Feelgood, Kilburn and the High Roads and Ducks Deluxe played simple, “back to mono” rhythm and blues in the tradition of white British groups like The Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds, with fuzzy overdriven guitars and whiny vocals. Lesser acts played funky soul (Kokomo, Clancy, Cado Belle) or country rock (The Kursaal Flyers, Chilli Willi, and the Red Hot Peppers). While pub rockers did not have expensive stage shows, they took inspiration from early R&B and increased the dynamism and intensity of their live shows. Pub rock allowed a variety of singers and musicians to perform, even if they did not adhere to a clearly defined musical genre.
Kilburn &the High-Roads-The Mumble Rumble &the Cocktail rock; Dr. Feelgood – Milk And Alcohol; Ducks Deluxe, Coast to coast:
1970s > pub rock (Australia)
pub rock (Australia)
stylistic origins: rock and roll / hard rock / blues rock / progressive rock
cultural origins: 1970s, Australia
Pub rock is a style of Australian rock and roll popular throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and still influencing contemporary Australian music in the 2000s decade. The term came from the venues where most of these bands originally played — inner-city and suburban pubs. These often noisy, hot, small and crowded venues were not always ideal as music venues and favored loud, simple songs based on drums and electric guitar riffs.
The Australian version of pub rock incorporates hard rock, blues rock, and/or progressive rock. In the Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop (1999), Australian musicologist Ian McFarlane described how, in the early 1970s, Billy Thorpe & The Aztecs, Blackfeather, and Buffalo pioneered Australia’s pub rock movement. Australian rock music journalist Ed Nimmervoll declared that “[t]he seeds for Australian heavy rock can be traced back to two important sources, Billy Thorpe’s Seventies Aztecs and Sydney band Buffalo”.
Cold Chisel – Khe Sanh; Buffalo – Shylock; Billy Thorpe & The Aztecs – Most People I Know Think That I’m Crazy:
mid-1970s> new wave
stylistic origins: punk rock/ power pop / disco / pub rock / bubblegum pop
cultural origins: mid-1970s, United Kingdom and United States
New wave moved away from blues and rock and roll sounds to create rock music (early new wave) or pop music (later) that incorporated disco, mod, and electronic music. Initially new wave was similar to punk rock, before becoming a distinct genre.
It subsequently engendered subgenres and fusions, including synth-pop.
Bit by bit the last traces of Punk were drained from New Wave, as New Wave went from meaning Talking Heads to meaning the Cars to Squeeze to Duran Duran to, finally, Wham!
—Music critic Bill Flannigan writing in 1989
Eurythmics – Here Comes The Rain Again; The B-52’s – Rock Lobster; Gary Numan – Cars:
subgenres: cold wave, darkwave, synth-pop
derivative forms: Finnish rock, chillwave
fusion genres: electroclash